top of page

Reversible Causes of Cardiac Arrest (H's & T's)

Updated: Feb 9, 2023

During every Cardiac Arrest, we should always consider the reversible causes! These are not just for your ACLS & PALS Provider course.

I follow a HEAD to TOE approach when considering the H’s & T’s, as it's easier to recall when following a systematic approach.


🫁 HYPOXIA: Ventilation & adequate Oxygenation is a priority! Advanced Airway if needed.


🩺 TAMPONADE: Pericardiocentesis.

💉TENSION PNEUMO: Needle decompression, Chest Drain

🫁 THROMBOSIS (PULMONARY): Thrombolytic or Thrombectomy.


🥶 HYPOTHERMIA: Warm patient.

IV Access & Draw Bloods:

📈📉HYPO/HYPERKALEMIA: EKG changes- HypoK: Flattened/inverted T waves, U wave.

HyperK: Peaked T waves, Widened QRS, Sine wave.

💊 TOXINS: Take SAMPLE Hx. Use appropriate antidote as indicated.

🫀 THROMBOSIS (CORONARY): ECG changes, Troponin. Take to PCI facility.

🤒 HYDROGEN ION (ACIDOSIS): Treat the underlying cause.

💧🩸 HYPOVOLEMIA: IV Fluids. Blood products for blood loss.

Picture: The New York Times.

Disclaimer: This post is for educational purposes and is not intended as medical advice. While we strive for 100% accuracy, errors may occur, and medications or protocols may change over time.


Recent Posts

See All


bottom of page